My Taxonomy for self-directed learning…

Taxonomy refers to the classification of the levels of human cognition processes such as learning, understanding and thinking. Or it can be the summary of the categorisation of educational goals for learning.

Remembering: Retrieving, recognizing, and recalling relevant knowledge from short- or long-term memory. • What did I do?
• What do I already know?
• What is my aim?
• How should I plan?
• How can I motivate myself?
Understanding: Constructing meaning from oral, written, or graphic messages.
• What was important about what I did?
• Did I meet my goals?
• What new information did I learn?
Applying: Carrying out or using a procedure through executing, or implementing. Extending the procedure to a new setting.
• Have I done this before?
• Where else could I use this again?
• How do I do this the way I learn best?
Evaluating: Making judgments based on criteria and standards.
• How well did I do?
• What worked?
• What didn’t work?
• How do I do it better next time?
• Seeking constructive feedback
Creating: Combining or reorganizing elements into a new pattern or structure.
• What should I do next?
• What’s my plan / design?
• How can I make it better?

Reference: Pappas, P. (2010). Taxonomy of Reflection: Critical Thinking For Students, Teachers, and Principals. Retrieved from


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